In the past decade, nearly 20 studies have found a strong, persistent pattern in surveys and behavioral experiments from over 40 countries: individual exposure to war violence tends to increase social cooperation at the local level, including community participation and prosocial behavior. Thus while war has many negative legacies for individuals and societies, it appears to leave a positive legacy in terms of local cooperation and civic engagement. We discuss, synthesize and reanalyze the emerging body of evidence, and weigh alternative explanations. There is some indication that war violence especially enhances in-group or “parochial” norms and preferences, a finding that, if true, suggests that the rising social cohesion we document need not promote broader peace.
What explains online radicalization and support for ISIS in the West? Over the past few years, thousands of individuals have radicalized by consuming extremist content online, many of whom eventually traveled overseas to join the Islamic State. This study examines whether anti-Muslim hostility might drive pro-ISIS radicalization in Europe. Using new geo-referenced data on the online behavior of thousands of Islamic State supporters in France, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Belgium, I study whether the intensity of anti-Muslim hostility at the local (neighborhood/municipality) level is linked to pro-ISIS radicalization on Twitter. Results show that local-level measures of anti-Muslim animosity correlate significantly and substantively with indicators of online radicalization, including posting tweets sympathizing with ISIS, describing life in ISIS-controlled territories, discussing foreign fighters, and expressing anti-West sentiment. High-frequency data surrounding events that stir anti-Muslim hostility — terrorist attacks and anti-Muslim protests in Europe — show the same pattern.
Countering Violent Extremism: Do Community Engagement Efforts Reduce Extremist Rhetoric on Social Media? [Paper + Appendix]
Over the past few years, efforts at countering violent extremism (CVE) have increased around the world. In the United States, much of the focus has been on community engagement — programs aiming to reduce radicalization by empowering local communities to identify warning signs of extremism before individuals engage in violence. The emphasis on community engagement is rooted in the idea that local knowledge held by families, neighbors, and friends is crucial for countering radicalization. Understanding whether engaging communities is effective is of paramount importance, especially with the rising accessibility of extremist materials on the Internet and social media. However, to date, there has been little systematic study of the effectiveness of community engagement programs in reducing radicalization in the United States. This paper uses new geo-located data on the online behavior of Islamic State supporters and their followers on Twitter, along with information on community engagement activities held by the Department of Homeland Security’s Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties during the Obama Administration from 2014 to 2016, to examine whether community engagement events are associated with reductions in pro-ISIS content on Twitter in these localities. The findings show that community engagement activities are followed by a decrease in online pro-ISIS rhetoric, especially in areas that have held a large number of these events.
Terrorism and the Rise of Right-Wing Content in Israeli Books. Revising & Resubmitting to International Organization.
In the past few years the Western world has witnessed a rise in the popularity of right-wing political discourse promoting nationalistic and exclusionary worldviews. While in many countries such rhetoric has surfaced in mainstream politics only recently, in Israel, right-wing discourse has been popular for almost two decades. Explanations for this surge focus on Israeli citizens’ attitudinal change in the face of exposure to terrorism, but largely do not account for why such ideas remain popular over the long term, even after violence subsides. This study examines whether the long-lasting prominence of right-wing nationalistic discourse in Israel might be related to the perpetuation of nationalistic ideology in popular media, textbooks, and other educational tools. Analyzing the content of more than 70,000 published books, this study finds that right-wing content has increased in Israeli books after periods of terrorism in the Second Intifada, a change that persists over years. In addition, it finds that nationalistic rhetoric significantly changed in a prominent civics textbook, whose versions from before and after the Intifada are analyzed.
A large literature argues that territorial disputes are prone to conflict because of the value of territory to publics, whether due to its strategic and material worth, or to its intangible, symbolic value. Yet despite the implications of the distinction for both theory and policy, empirically disentangling the material from the symbolic has posed a formidable methodological challenge. We propose a method for assessing the nature of individual territorial attachment, drawing on a series of survey experiments in Israel. Our empirical analysis illustrates how the distribution of territorial preferences in the domestic population can have powerful implications for conflict and its resolution.
Terrorism as a Provocation Strategy: Transnational Terrorism and Anti-Muslim Hostility in the West. In progress.
Armed groups use terrorism to mobilize recruitment by provoking targeted governments to overreact with violence against potential supporters. In this paper, I argue that in addition to provoking governments, transnational terrorism in Western countries is also used to provoke targeted populations to become indiscriminately hostile to the crowd from which potential supporters can be drawn. In the context of Jihadi terrorism in the West, this means increased anti-Muslim sentiment after terrorist attacks. This study examines whether acts of terrorism perpetrated by radical Jihadists in Europe and the United States increase anti-Muslim rhetoric and support for the ideology of far-right, anti-Muslim parties among individuals in targeted countries. Combining data on terrorist attacks from 2010 to 2016 with high-frequency, panel data from Twitter, I show that individuals significantly increase anti-Muslim rhetoric after they are exposed to terrorist violence. This effect spikes immediately after attacks, decays over time, but remains significantly higher than pre-attack levels up to a month after the events.
How Increasing Media Freedom Affects Political Discourse, Knowledge, and Polarization: Tracing the Mechanisms. With Jack Snyder. In progress.
Free news and communications media is one of the central pillars of political life in stable democracies. Without it, citizens would lack the information to evaluate public issues, organize political groups, choose prudently among candidates for office, and hold officials accountable. Consequently, democrats typically take it for granted that increases in media freedom in countries that lack it will contribute to democratization, the enhancement of rights, the rule of law, and social stability. On average, and over the long run, they are certainly correct. In the short run, however, the impact of increased media freedom on these desirable outcomes is much more complex and varied. In this project, we empirically study how increases in media freedom are associated with various democratic outcomes in countries across the world, using micro-level data from multiple survey rounds over time.